Brief History of MRI

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Brief History of MRI

Brief History of Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Magnetic Resonnance Imaging (MRI) is by far the most important diagnostic imaging discovery in medicine since the discovery of X-Ray by Roentgen in 1890.
The first clinical use of MRI took place in Nottingham University Hospital in England in 1967. Since then it's importance in radiology continue to grow at a tremendous space and is now established beyond doubt.

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Guy Sovak
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Thanks for the intersting

Thanks for the intersting information
in the website I couldnt get the attachment to open.?.

Roshan's picture
gsovak wrote:Thanks for the

gsovak wrote:

Thanks for the intersting information
in the website I couldnt get the attachment to open.?.

I was able to click and open and I am posting the whole text for people to see:
The first clinical use of MRI took place in Nottingham University Hospital in England in 1967. Since then it's importance in radiology continue to grow at a tremendous space and is now established beyond doubt.

In the early 1980s, MRI caught the attention of clinicians by its ability to visualize abnormalities in the posterior fossa of the brain and in the upper cervical spine. Computer Tomography by this time had established itself as an important diagnostic tool in the head and body imaging. However demonstrating lesions in the posterior fossa and the spine has always been a problem with CT scan because of the bony structures in these regions. This is because CT scan uses X-Rays unlike MRI which uses magnetism.

Over the next few years, MRI became a supplementary modality in diagnostic imaging, complementing CT scan in CNS investigations, but MRI played a small part in the other regions of the body. MRI in those days took as long as two hours in one examination and except for head and the spine which can be fixed and prevented from movement, pictures from the chest and abdomen from MRI were not of diagnostic quality as they were blurred from respiratory and heart motion.

These were the problems encounted from the use of low field strength magnets and with the then prevaling technology. With the introduction of high field magnets in the mid 1980s, came faster scan times and better techniques. Soon the superiority of MRI over CT scan was fast realized. In the last three to four years improved computer technology in hardware and software gave MRI the means of obtaining good quality images in other parts of the body.

MRI today is considered the imaging modality of choice for most parts of the body, outstripping CT scan in the CNS, especially in the spine, musculoskeletal system, neck and mediastinal structures with diagnostic usefulness in the cardiovascular diseases and abnormalities unchallenged.

MRI has great potentials and developmental progress will be exciting over the next few years. Recent progress made in very fast scanning time, down to milliseconds, even allow for MRI fluoroscopy and 3D imaging, and this excites further interest, labeling MRI's potentials limitless.

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MRI Stands for Magnetic

MRI Stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and earlier it was called Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The "Nuclear" was dropped off about 15 years ago because of fears that people would think there was something radioactive involved, which there is not.  MRI is a way of getting pictures of various parts of your body without the use of x-rays, unlike regular x-rays pictures and CAT scans. A MRI scanner consists of a large and very strong magnet in which the patient lies. A radio wave antenna is used to send signals* to the body and then receive signals back. These returning signals are converted into pictures by a computer attached to the scanner. Pictures of almost any part of your body can be obtained at almost any particular angle.
an MRI (or magnetic resonance imaging) scan is a radiology technique that uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. The MRI scanner is a tube surrounded by a giant circular magnet. The patient is placed on a moveable bed that is inserted into the magnet. The magnet creates a strong magnetic field that aligns the protons of hydrogen atoms, which are then exposed to a beam of radio waves. This spins the various protons of the body, and they produce a faint signal that is detected by the receiver portion of the MRI scanner. The receiver information is processed by a computer, and an image is produced.
The image and resolution produced by MRI is quite detailed and can detect tiny changes of structures within the body. For some procedures, contrast agents, such as gadolinium, are used to increase the accuracy of the images.
 * These "radio wave signals" are actually a varying or changing magnetic field that is much weaker than the steady, strong magnetic field of the main magnet.
 MRI is quite safe in treatment but in Certain patients may not be able to have an MRI. who get nervous in small spaces (claustrophobic) and those with implanted medical devices such as aneurysm clips in the brain, heart pacemakers and cochlear (inner ear) implants. Also, people with pieces of metal close to or in an important organ (such as the eye) may not be scanned. There are a few additional safety considerations and some exceptions based on individual circumstances. Also, certain metal objects that we common have on our persons like watches, credit cards, hair pins, writing pens, etc. may be damaged by the MRI scanner or may be pulled away from our bodies if we go into an MRI room. Also, metal can sometimes cause poor pictures if it is close to the part being scanned. For these reasons, patients are asked to remove these objects before entering the MRI scanner.
MRI scanners are good at looking at the non-bony parts or "soft tissues" of the body. In particular, the brain, spinal cord and nerves are seen much more clearly with MRI than with regular x-rays and CAT scans. Also, muscles, ligaments and tendons are seen quite well so that MRI scans are commonly used to look at knees and shoulders following injuries. A MRI scanner uses no x-rays or other radiation. A disadvantage of MRI is it’s higher cost compared to a regular x-ray or CAT scan. Also, CAT scans are frequently better at looking at the bones that MRI.
An MRI scan can be used as an extremely accurate method of disease detection throughout the body. In the head, trauma to the brain can be seen as bleeding or swelling. Other abnormalities often found include brain aneurysms, stroke, tumors of the brain,  as well as tumors or inflammation of the spine. Neurosurgeons use an MRI scan not only in defining brain anatomy but in evaluating the integrity of the spinal cord after trauma. It is also used when considering problems associated with the vertebrae or intervertebral discs of the spine. An MRI scan can evaluate the structure of the heart and aorta, where it can detect aneurysms or tears. It provides valuable information on glands and organs within the abdomen, and accurate information about the structure of the joints, soft tissues, and bones of the body. Often, surgery can be deferred or more accurately directed after knowing the results of an MRI scan.

g a
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SENSTIVITY OF MRI CAN FURTHER BE INCREASED BY INJECTION OF A COLOURED DYE. This particular modification is used to monitor the blood supply in brain and other critical organs.